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Family Business Matters       01/10 05:45

   Five Phases of Succession Planning

   Think through these steps to create a rewarding and effective transition.

By Lance Woodbury
DTN Farm Business Adviser

   At some point in your farming or ranching career, you begin to think about 
who will take over the business. You realize replacing yourself involves not 
just carrying on the tasks you perform every day but also determining control 
over the very asset base that provides for your livelihood. It begins to dawn 
on you that handing off this business might be complicated.


   Realizing the need for succession planning can be triggered by a number of 
events, some positive and some negative. A health crisis, accident or untimely 
death are perhaps the most dramatic leads into the transition. Or, it may be 
more gradual as your heirs choose not to return, and it becomes more difficult 
to find help. Sometimes, one's vocational interests simply begin to change, or 
you get excited about a different kind of work. Or, maybe tension with the 
younger generation or the emergence of differing goals with your business 
partners makes a transition more apparent.

   Another obvious trigger is the business environment. Sometimes not making 
money for extended periods of time causes a business owner to decide he or she 
would rather do something else. For this or other reasons, you realize it is 
time to begin the handoff.


   The next phase in succession involves the younger generation stepping wholly 
into the full-time work environment. They may know how to do the work from 
growing up on a family farm, but it becomes important for them to work 
alongside current employees as adults and develop more professional 
relationships with family members. In addition to being a son, daughter, nephew 
or niece, they become a valuable coworker or team member. 


   A potential successor then moves from doing the work to managing others. 
This takes a shift in mindset and new skills. Motivating others, delegating and 
providing constructive feedback become vital competencies. It helps if they 
have learned some of these skills (or at least learned what not to do) by 
working somewhere else first, where they are not related to the boss or owner. 
If they haven't, finding good education and training in this phase can be 
invaluable for successors.


   Watching younger family members manage gives the senior generation 
confidence in their leadership capacity. The retiring generation can step 
further away, handing over significant control. Here, it helps if the senior 
generation has something to draw energy or interests away from the business -- 
a new business venture, travel, board service, mission work or retirement 
activities -- in order to give the younger generation the space to lead the 
business without feeling watched over or constantly second-guessed.


   Because farming and ranching businesses are capital intensive, with equity 
building over generations, and because of the significant tax implications of 
ownership transitions, the gifting of land, equipment or entities often takes 
years. By the time the next generation is running the business, ownership 
interests should be moving down the line.

   At the very least, have a clear path and expectations for how the new 
generation will come to own the business. Not doing so creates a number of 
assumptions about who the partners will be, especially if there are potential 
off-farm heirs. And, those assumptions are often the cause of significant 
stress and family conflict.

   Succession involves weighty issues: mortality, identity, money, power and 
relationships. Business owners rarely start the process too early; the default 
is to keep putting it off precisely because the issues are not easy. But, 
thinking through succession in phases can help you identify your next steps on 
the path to a rewarding and successful transition.


   Editor's Note: Write Lance Woodbury at Family Business Matters, 2204 
Lakeshore Dr., Suite 415, Birmingham, AL 35209, or email lance@agprogress.com.


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